Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu INRA Clermont Auvergne University

UMR GDEC

Joint Research Unit 1095 Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals

Caroline Pont

2016 oct -

Wheat plays a key role in Human food due to its nutritional value. Wheat production needs to be increased by more than 20% by 2050 to guarantee current human consumption standards. Taking into account climatic changes with high level of environmental constraints, yield improvement without quality loss became a big challenge. This consists in the economical and societal context of the current doctoral thesis.

The integrative translational genomic approach consists in transferring fundamental knowledge gained from model species to applied practices for breeding in crops. This strategy was used here to study the evolutionary history, the organization and the regulation of the modern bread wheat genome. Modern wheat is a polypoid species deriving from two hybridization events between diploid progenitors 500 000 and 10 000 years ago, as well as a more ancient that dated back to more than 90 million years ago. The current research consisted in using cereal species closely related to wheat to study the impact of these duplications on the structural and expression plasticity of duplicated genes in wheat.

Our results established that the diploidization process is in progress in wheat after the successive rounds of polyploidization events. This diploidization consists in the accumulation of mutations, gene loss or expression modification between duplicated genes. This diploidization is nonrandom at the genome level; generating dominant chromosomic regions with high stability in contrast to others regions more sensitive with high plasticity. Based on such wheat genome evolutionary analysis, polyploidy appears as a major evolutionary force driving plant adaptation through structural and expressional specialization of duplicated genes.

Such post-polyploidy genomic asymmetry drives finally the phenotype diploidization as illustrated in the current research with the study of genetic basis of the tiller inhibition Trait. This trait seems to be driven by a 109 pb insertion coding for a microRNA located solely on the chromosome 1A, known as a sensitive genomic fraction.

The current research established that the modern bread wheat has been quasi-entirely diploidized at the structural, expressional and phenotypic levels, now requiring a new definition of the polypoid concept in line with current genomic investigations, as illustrated in the current thesis.